Tag Archives: tension

Ting (listening) in Tai Chi & Qigong.

What is ‘listening’ in tai chi & qigong?
‘Listening’ is the art of feeling, so you know how to act.
Listening is pulling up a weed in your garden; it is sensing, beyond the point at which you are touching.
Listening is having a conversation with someone for whom you have great respect.
Listening is fractionally preceded by relaxation.
Listening is making the body hyper-alive.
Listening bypasses anticipation and expectation. It is being completely in the moment; you have no idea what is going to happen nor how you are going to react.
Listening is the way that you receive information from the outside world – it is the moment between your antennae and your brain.
Listening is working with, not fighting against.
Listening is having no agenda.

Ideally, listening is very light; it is being able to sense and respond to the gentlest of touches.  If the pressure of one hair were placed against your skin, you would feel its direction and give way.

Setting up how to feel it…
Listening is most easily felt when you are working with a partner, but in a different way it also applies to solo tai chi practice.
To feel it, it is necessary to have a partner to help you:-
1) Hold your arm out in front of you, slightly bent at the elbow so that your palm faces you, and have someone touch your wrist either with his fingers or the back of his wrist.  It is better if he doesn’t grip you.
2) Partner does a gentle push directly towards you.
3) Allow your arm to be moved so that there is no pressure at the point of connection.  If there were a soap bubble between you both, it wouldn’t burst, but neither do you disconnect from the push.

Feeling it…
As your partner pushes, there should be no muscular tension.  This is easy, your arm will simply fold with the gentle pressure.
Try to sense the exact direction of the push.  Was it directly towards you, or was it fractionally left, right, up, or down?  Was there any pressure between your wrist and the other person, and did you respond precisely to that push?  This is ‘listening’ and ‘following’.

A conversation.
It is the same as someone telling you their point of view, when you are only focussing on what they have to say without judgement or wanting to interject with your point of view.

And if you want to change the direction of that conversation?
What if you want to redirect that push?  If you stop listening, your muscles kick in and you’re no longer ‘going with the flow’.
When the muscles tighten and you start to operate them individually, e.g. using only your forearm or only your shoulder, the message pathway between the point of contact (in this case your wrist) and the centre that interprets the sensory input (the parietal lobe) is temporarily congested (by the muscular tension) and messages can no longer get through so efficiently.  In effect, the tightened muscles mean that the joints are no longer sensitively sprung, flexible and soft and are therefore partially disabled.  It’s not unlike a plumbing system where the pipes are badly furred up and the function of transporting water is compromised.

Listening to your body.
Listening also needs to take place when doing solo tai chi.  In this case you are listening to your body.  E.g., if you have a ‘dodgy’ knee, you need to use the joint with caution, feeling how much pressure it will take, and in what way it can take that pressure.  It’s no good working the joint very hard in the hope that you’ll somehow beat the pain into submission and it will disappear.
So, you need to listen.  Listening will allow you to change habits that perhaps are not in your best interest to persist with – a sort of ‘intelligent observation’.

And the point is…
Listening is ultimately about relaxation and the ability to read your own tension, pinpointing where it lies, and how to release it.
When doing a solo tai chi form this is equally as applicable as working with a partner.  It’s your own tension that will let you down making your movements more clumsy and wooden.  You’ll know when you’ve got it right because the movements will feel smooth and easy.
James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Taijiquan one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308



There are many reasons for stress.  What stresses one person might to another be a positive drive to action.
You would possibly think that de-stressing is about relaxation, but there are many techniques for de-stressing that have little to do with relaxation and more to do with distraction.’

The parasympathetic nervous system.
To begin with, stress is connected to the state of your autonomic nervous system, a system that is divided into the ‘parasympathetic’ and the ‘sympathetic’ nervous systems.
The parasympathetic system is your functional system which regulates your everyday bodily activities (blood supply, breathing, digestion, elimination); this carries on without your involvement, although you can control certain aspects of it.

The sympathetic nervous system.
Your sympathetic nervous system becomes active in cases of emergency.  If something happens that is potentially life-threatening, many of your body’s processes are temporarily either slowed or shut down, and an increased supply of glucose goes to the brain (whilst its access to the cells of the body is blocked – ‘insulin resistance’) in order to deal with the situation that has arisen.  In other words, the brain needs the glucose boost temporarily to find a rapid solution to the emergency.

And after the emergency…
The problems begin when the sympathetic nervous system, having dealt with the emergency, doesn’t settle down again and continues to over-function; this could be because of problems at work, at home, or with life generally.  When this happens, the ‘temporary’ boost of glucose and the shutting down of part of your system becomes more than ‘temporary’.
There are several repercussions from this including the factor that inflammation in the body is increased because the insulin/glucose balance in the body fails to stabilise.

Inflammation is a major stress factor.
We tend to associate the word with localised inflammation, in other words we think of a joint or a muscle being uncomfortable and inflamed, but this is different, it’s inflammation on a whole-body level, and whether it’s high or low level, it is more insidious than an isolated location.
We all know that an aching shoulder, knee, or elbow is tiring; it’s a constant irritation that absorbs our attention.
When the body is undergoing permanent low level irritation, it’s exhausting and energy draining, but the main problem is that it’s cyclical; the less energy you have, the less there is for the body to deal with the inflammation.
So you go for something to ‘perk you up’, usually sugar-based.  This boosts the glucose levels in the body, but because your glucose/insulin levels are not balanced due to your being in stress mode, the glucose is forced to the brain (which is what happens in the emergency situation – the brain needing the extra energy to deal with the tiger that’s about to attack you!).  In effect, you started the cycle again.

What can I do about it?
This is almost impossible to answer as it depends on what is stressing you in the first place. However, there are a number of factors to take into account that can help to improve the situation and some techniques that can also help.

1) Diet.
Some foods are more inflammatory than others. This will vary from person to person, but if you know what they are, avoid them.
One interesting example that I read recently is that red meat contains one molecule that is not found in humans; therefore, when this molecule enters the human body, the immune system sees it as an invader and, in order to fight it, creates inflammation, in effect using fire to stop the spread of the potential problem, and ‘burn out’ the invader.
I’m not saying that you shouldn’t eat red meat, but this is one example of how the body deals with something that it doesn’t want.

2. Psychological.
Where to start?!
Very briefly, following an event, a part of our brain mulls an issue over and over.  It compares it to previous similar events, it forms plans as to how to deal with it, it considers what you might have said at the time, how things might have been better had something else happened, and so on.
The Chinese call this the ‘Monkey Brain/Mind’.  It’s also known as your ‘Default Mode Network’, and is the network of brain cells from approximately the middle-front of your skull towards the back.
The problem is to break the thought-cycle that is creating the stress.  This involves various techniques, many of which involve distraction from the problem, if only for a short time. Often during that short time, the situation itself either alters or possibly resolves in some unexpected way.
(In the diagram, the ‘mPFC’ refers to the median Pre-Frontal Cortex’, the ‘PCC’ to the Posterior Cingulate Cortex – i.e. front to back along the top of the head).

Distraction can be in the form of anything that alters your focus for a reasonable length of time, which engages your brain and therefore disengages you from the problem.  Puzzles, meditation, focusing on breathing, learning/playing an instrument, listening attentively to music… I’m not convinced that watching TV is as good.

Maybe it’s also worth pointing out that this part of the brain is the location of what Freud called the ‘ego’, and which is also known as the ‘autobiographical memory’.  This is where you constantly recreate that picture of how you see yourself – the Monkey Brain in action.

3. Exercise.
This is a good way to de-stress, and ties in with (2) above.  The exercise shouldn’t be exhausting, but slightly cardiovascular is good.  (Various tests have been done that show that forcing the body very hard during exercise doesn’t help to de-stress as much as gentle exercise).
Obviously this is where tai chi and qigong fit in.  This type of exercise connects the mind & body, each helping the other to relax and soften.

4. Central equilibrium.
One of the main reasons however why tai chi and qigong are so good for de-stressing you is that both are about the physical ‘balancing’ of the body, in other words, making the body work as a perfect unit.
How can you feel stressed if your body – your own personal universe – is moving breathing and rotating perfectly, and is working in perfect accord not only with itself but also with your environment?
James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Taijiquan on one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308


How on Earth do you ‘Relax’?

Relaxation v. De-stressing.
You might think that relaxation is the same thing as de-stressing,  but there’s a difference.  De-stressing can use a variety of techniques that don’t necessarily involve relaxation of muscles.

It’s relative.
How relaxed you are is a relative matter; perhaps there’s an ultimate, but it’s always in comparison to either how you were before, or to how someone else is.




How is ‘relax’ defined?

  • The state of body and mind being free from tension and anxiety.
  • A loosening or slackening.
  • The lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibres.
  • Returning to a state of equilibrium having been displaced from it.
  • A form of mild ecstasy coming from the frontal lobe of the brain.

Other applicable words:
•  Letting go
•  Undoing
•  Loosening
•  Releasing
•  Softening
•  Sinking
•  De-stressing
•  Settling
•  Song 松 (Chin.)

You can always relax more.
It’s quite astonishing how much more you can relax your body.  You think you’ve reached the full extent, and then someone rests their hands very softly and gently on, for example, your shoulders, and you find there’s more to go.  I’ve seen it in the people I teach, and I’ve experienced it myself many times.

Why’s it so hard?
You have to become an observer to relax; to experience your body you have to ‘stand outside yourself’.  That’s the relative or comparative part – you need perspective.  In order to make this comparison, you produce a memory of when you felt more relaxed, which you then put alongside how you currently feel, and measure them against each other.  This ‘standing outside yourself’ lasts for the briefest of moments.
You can only ever work within the field of your personal experience of relaxation – you can’t experience someone else’s sense of relaxation.  It’s therefore what you might call ‘personally-comparative’; when relaxing, you are aiming to be more relaxed than you were a moment ago.

Physical technique.
1) Make fist and squeeze it as tightly as you can.  Let go of it and observe the sensation of release.

2) Change the perspective on your body.  At this moment, whilst you reading this, you might think that you’re relaxed, but perhaps you’re only semi-relaxed.  Try relaxing every inch of you from scalp to feet.

3) It doesn’t work for everyone, but for some people imagery can help, e.g. looking at a picture and imagining that you’re there.  But even that must be based on memory.  In this picture, if something disastrous had happened on the beach, you possibly wouldn’t feel so relaxed.

4) Think of your shoulder, imagining a finger very gently pushing into the muscles on the top.  Try allowing that imaginary finger right in, so that you feel no discomfort.  You might have felt a slackening or undoing in that shoulder.

5) When you breathe, the muscles in the chest, and also in the abdomen ideally, are compelled to stretch and then release.  This is an all-body version of the finger-in-the-shoulder exercise above.  In the above imagery exercise, you were stretching and then releasing one muscle; when breathing, hundreds of muscles are involved.
So you can use conscious breathing as a very useful tool for both muscular and mental relaxation.


At the end of the day, it all comes back to this.

James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Taijiquan on one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308


Sinking your Boat: (1) The Hull.

Behaving like a boat.
Your body has a keel and a mast.  The question is, how do you experience it?

The hull & keel.
This is your pelvis and your legs.  When a boat sits in water, it tries to sink to the bottom of the sea, it has no intention of floating.  The challenge for us is to try to emulate that sensation; okay, we’re not in the sea, but we’re constantly (and subconsciously) trying to sink towards the core of the planet.
But, by and large we don’t, we try to ‘float’ across the surface of the planet like the wind. We become ungrounded.

Feel it.
To experience your hull, you have to put yourself in the position of feeling exactly how you would ‘feel’ if you were the hull of a boat.  If you don’t feel it, then it’s all conceptual – all in your head.
So, if your pelvis were the hull of the boat, with your legs reaching down into the water (the keel), how heavy would you feel as you attempted to sink to the bottom?  Your upper body, everything else from the waist up, would be the contents of the boat, the deck, shrouds, rigging, sails, etc.
You could still rock from side to side, or forwards and backwards, you could still turn and twist, but all of those upper movements would be coming from a stable platform.
James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Taijiquan on one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308


Qigong – is it Yoga?

I’m not a yoga teacher, although back in 1978 I did teach yoga for a couple of years.

One of the aspects of both yoga and qigong is to enhance your potential.  If we always move in ways in which we are ‘comfortable’, certain parts of us remain static whilst other parts of us elasticate and ‘grow’, or at least remain more fluid.
Perhaps that’s a bit like only oiling the engine on the car but not bothering to grease the bearings?  If the engine works too well, it might be at the expense of the bearings which can’t take the strain.
Enhancing your potential applies to both qigong and yoga.

Qigong falls into a couple of categories: Static & Mobile.
In the static postures you get into a position and then, whilst maintaining it, you work within it, your aim being ultimately to increase your levels of qi (one of those expressions that means little to most people).  I’ll get to that in a moment…
In these static postures you aim to relax, but this isn’t a soggy-relaxation experience, it’s more dynamic. You are aiming to do more than just empty the body of tension, you are also aiming to add what I can only describe as ‘educated’ tension.

‘Educated tension’.
To give an example of this: Hold out your arm in front of you, the palm facing you as though you’ve wrapped it around someone’s waist (see the right arm in the photo).  Completely relax it in that position.
The first point is that, even though you relaxed it, it didn’t drop; all that happened was that you disengaged the muscles that were unnecessary to keep it there.
Now imagine someone is gently pushing your forearm towards you; imagine that you can feel the push but do nothing with the arm.
Then imagine that someone is attempting to pull your forearm away from you; once again, imagine that you can feel the pull but do nothing with the arm.
Now try doing both the pull and push sensations simultaneously.

Is this a form of almost-relaxation or of almost-tension?
It’s usually referred to as ‘educated force’, although I think that ‘educated relaxation’, or even ‘educated tension’ as above, would serve just as well.
This isn’t something that you will come across in yoga.

Moving Qigong takes you into and out of postures continually.  It aims to stretch and twist the body in unusual ways in order to increase the body’s potential.
It often works with acupuncture channels, fascial stretches, and the lymphatic system; this is also true of static qigong although the latter is less obvious and  direct.
This might be unintentionally similar to yoga (‘unintentionally’ because yoga tends not to refer to acupuncture).

‘Increasing your levels of Qi’.
Factor 1
In order to have better levels of energy, you need to avoid wasting it.
Energy is easily wasted.  Using the plumbing analogy – if the pipes are furred, if the joints leak, if the fluid (whatever it is) leaks on the way to the outlet, your system is compromised.
If the body holds tension or stress, the muscles contract, the bore of the piping is reduced, the pressure increases, the pump has to work harder, etc.

This analogy refers to the blood flow, the lymph flow, the functioning of the nervous system, the ability of the body to breathe, the heart to pump, and the ability of the digestive system to clear toxins… in fact any body system you can think of!
All of the body systems need to work to the best of their ability.  If they don’t, the body has to work harder, which burns more energy, and has to combat the various forms of inflammation that will likely result from the system’s inefficiency.

Factor 2
We live in a world that is powered by energy. It’s a self-propelled, self-regulating, self-regenerating system. It works, although we don’t understand how or even why.
What we can say is that it produces and uses energy; you only have to watch a plant growing against the force of gravity to witness that.
Qigong aims to allow us to gather and harvest more of that energy, so that as mobile plants, we flourish.

The Kidneys & ‘ancestral’ qi.
One other point worth mentioning is Chinese medicine’s view of the functioning of the Kidneys.
Apart from their standard physiological functioning, Chinese medicine see the kidneys as housing what they call your ‘Yuan qi’ (or ‘source qi’), which can be defined as the qi that you get from your ancestors.  This is what a westerner would describe as your ‘constitutional strength’, i.e. your ability to fight illness, as well as your susceptibilities to illnesses passed down through the family line.
Qigong aims to increase and repair your Yuan Qi, although it is openly admitted that to do this is very difficult, and is only possible in a limited way.
This does not apply to Yoga.

Does yoga aim to increase levels of Qi?
In my limited experience – yoga does not aim to increase levels of qi, but 1978 is quite a long way away, and I was quite young at the time. The only other yoga classes I’ve attended since those days haven’t altered my opinion of this either, the classes often being filled by those with an unusually hyper-extensive ability (perhaps I chose the wrong class).  The hyper-extensive practitioner is most definitely not aiming for qi-expansion!
James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Taijiquan on one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308


Stress, Tai Chi, & Qigong

A brief ‘whinge’.
Maybe it’s only because I’m older now (or having an off day), but life appears to be more stressful these days, particularly in a city.  Pollution, noise, the constant advertising which vies for attention with vibrant colours and incessantmovement, the pressure to engage in the
economics of the society (buy, buy, buy), the permanently ‘in contact’life we lead, and even the lack of real darkness, make me realise that these continuous stresses are one (although not all) of the reasons that Tai Chi and Qigong have so strong an appeal to me.

The ‘Quiet Place’.
When doing Tai Chi or Qigong, I can return to myself; it’s like finding the quiet place, where the outside world ceases its demands, and the focus turns inward.
All those movements are designed to help you find the middle place; every time one part of you moves in one direction, another part of you counterbalances in one way or another; so your centre is never lost.  You’re playing an internal balancing game.
One of the best bits is that you know when you’ve got it right – movement just feels easy, light, balanced, settled, natural (a particularly appropriate word in this context), calm and peaceful.  You feel whole.

Your own solar system.
Add this to the rhythm of the movements, as though the body is breathing not only through the physical construction of the Form (in this case the expansion and contraction of the individual movements), but also in the way that those same movements are performed (Open/Close, the use of the 8 Energies, 5 Directions, etc.), and the system is perfect.  You are balancing your own solar system.

Cut down on your cortisol.
Both Tai Chi and Qigong help the lymphatic system function more efficiently; they quite literally ‘pump’ it.
The lymphatic tissue both transports nutrients through the body, and helps to wash the rubbish out; in the same way that the veins and arteries move the blood around the body, the lymphatic system moves the body’s water around.
When we are stressed, the balancing game between the ‘stress hormone’ – cortisol, (there’s an increase in production), and the lymphatic system, notches up a gear, and if we are stressed for long periods of time (chronic), the lymphatic system can stop doing its job.
As a result of this, our stress levels increase (Catch-22), and we start to collect the rubbish (toxins) in the body, which stresses us even further (another Catch-22), and as the lymphatic system works in close collaboration with the immune system (yet another balancing act), your immunity is compromised, and of course the body has to get ill in order to give itself a break from the stress.  Neat!

Initially, Qigong might be easier.
Of course, the ability to de-stress using Tai Chi assumes, at least initially, that you’re not trying to remember the next move, which is where Qigong steps in.If you’re doing some of the more mobile, repetitive Qigongs, you can sometimes reach that ‘quiet place’ more easily, because the next move is merely a repetition of the previous move, and because of this, you can adopt a more meditative approach more quickly.
If you’re doing Standing Qigong (Zhan Zhuang), there’s no external movement, all the balancing takes place inside you.  You could argue that this is stressful in a different way in that it can be physically demanding, and also because your mind won’t stop hopping around, but this does very much depend upon the individual.
In this respect, qigong is a great way to start learning Tai Chi; it’s certainly easier from a ‘learning movement’ point of view, and yet will teach you the fundamentals of Tai Chi.


James Drewe teaches Taijiquan and Qigong in both London and in Kent. Details of weekly classes can be found on the website, and there are classes for 2-person Tai Chi on one Saturday a month.

Email: taijiandqigong@gmail.com
Phone: 07836-710281 or 020-8883 3308


Energy. Why do you need to relax?

Body Efficiency.
The efficiency of the body’s movements largely depends upon how relaxed you are.
Our amazing network of muscle & tendon, of artery & vein, of organs & lymphatic system, and of tissue with its astonishing elasticity, needs to work in a smooth and coordinated fashion for the body to function ‘like clockwork’.

Energy & Water.hosepipe-water
Energy and water move in similar ways. Energy moves through your body in the much the same way that water passes through a hose pipe. Both follow the path of least resistance.hosepipe-twisted
Both the body and a hose pipe can flex. However, if either the body or the hose pipe is bent or twisted beyond a certain amount, the flow of water/energy passing through it begins to meet resistance; the water/energy is squeezed, slowing its passage.

The ‘body hose pipes’.
There are two different points here.  The first is about general tension and stress, which is the one this blog is focusing on.  The second is that, under certain circumstances in martial arts we intentionally ‘bend the hose pipes’ in order to achieve a specific result, e.g. when doing either a hand, elbow, shoulder, knee, or heel strike.

In the body, tension in the muscles is the equivalent of over-flexing the hose pipe. Physical/muscular tension or stress squeezes the nerves, reduces movement potential in the joints (by both pulling the joints together and by reducing flexibility), restricts the flow of blood and lymph, reduces breathing (which means that there is less oxygen for the cells, which causes an increase in stress), and reduces both coordination and balance.
In other words, the body’s energy becomes restricted and stops functioning as effectively.old-man

Getting older.
Aspects of this are particularly noticeable in older people where, because of a natural tightening of the tendons with age, the body contracts and starts to fold in on itself.  Often breathing becomes shallower, balance and coordination are compromised, and the flow of blood is reduced and the body feels colder.

This is also noticeable when we work for too long on computers. Our posture often becomes cramped over, the neck no longer balanced on top of the spine because we are leaning forwards. This in turn compresses the front of the body which reduces breathing, whilst our backs are under stress to support our forward-falling posture.

Undoing the series of hose pipes that make up the body will ensure that your tai chi & qigong movements, instead of feeling clumsy, off-balance and heavy, will feel loose and light, coordinated and flowing… unlike this character who’s a little over-relaxed.

Tai chi and qigong classes with James Drewe at http://www.taiji.co.uk/classes. 

2-Person Exercises in Taiji (2) – Maintaining Your Integrity

Continuing … from the previous blog

What’s the point of 2-person work?

  • We are taught that tai chi should be comfortable and relaxed, but when we do tai chi alone, our preconceptions of what it feels like to be ‘comfortable’ and ‘relaxed’ are largely dependent upon habit… our preconditioning.


This is a tricky one.  Most people don’t know when they are uncomfortable because their usual state of Being isn’t particularly relaxed.  We get used to breathing high up in the chest, we become accustomed to stress, we no longer notice bad posture, general fatigue seems par for the course, and we get used to a stiff neck or aching back.

In other words, if we misuse a part of us for long enough, we stop registering the discomfort as such, and it becomes the norm.
We’ve numbed it.

So ‘comfort’ becomes a relative issue… “It feels fine; its not hurting as much as it did before.”  The more discomfort we endure, the narrower our parameters of comfort become.

James & M.Wang (2)Relaxed
One of the functions of ‘testing’ postures with a partner (who is gently going to test your structure by pushing or pulling you – a kind of static Pushing Hands), is to see whether or not your body is working effectively and efficiently.
Therefore, if someone pushes you and you find it very difficult to relax and hold your posture, you know that something’s wrong – it’s not a matter of strength… it’s structure.
When you are not relaxed, you are holding a muscle (or muscles) in position. This is a form of stagnation which affects other muscles in the body; in effect, that part of the body is dead, or at the most, it’s functionality is severely compromised.
Because the held muscle lacks pliability, anyone pushing you is therefore pushing directly on that muscle (you are effectively ‘giving them a handle’); the person pushing you might not be able to feel any of the other muscles which are ‘liquid’, but he/she can feel the one that is tense.
This is not to say that you go completely soft and ‘soggy’, but you attempt to relax the muscles equally so that they support each other – there is a ‘muscular interconnection’ throughout the body so that when someone pushes you, he/she is not pushing one muscle, but is pushing every muscle in your body.  This is known as Peng – every muscle is equally supported by every other muscle.

But in solo tai chi, although you can sense the connection inside you, you have no way of actually experiencing it because to do so requires a force outside yourself.
You are therefore left with your old habits; there’s nothing to point them out to you (this would be like looking at yourself with your own eyes, or chewing your own teeth), and nothing to help you remove them.

To put it another way, we need the relative world in order to learn about ourselves.

… Continued in “2-Person Exercises in Taiji – Maintaining Your Integrity (3)”.